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Table 4 Metabolites observed in the fennel BSG, FPR, and LPR extracts and their1H NMR chemical shifts (δ)

From: Extraction and characterization of bio-effectors from agro-food processing by-products as plant growth promoters

Metabolites BSG FPR LPR δ
Isoleucine x x   0.93 [7]a (t), 1.00 [7] (d)
Leucine x    0.94 [7] (d), 0.96 [7] (d)
Valine x x   0.98 [7] (d), 1.03 [7] (d), 2.26 (m)
Isobutyrate x x x 1.13 [6.5] (d)
3-Hydroxybutirate x    1.21 [6.4] (d)
Lactate x x x 1,35 [7] (d), 4.12 [7] (q)
Alanine x x x 1.48 [7.2] (d), 3.78 [7.2] (q)
Proline   x   2.03 (m), 2.36 (m), 3.36 (m), 4.12 (m)
Glutamate   x   2.00 (m), 2.08 (m), 2.35 (m)
Glutamine   x   2.13 (m), 2.41 (m), 3.77 (m)
Methionine    x 2.15 (s)
Pyruvate x    2.36 (s)
Methylamine x   x 2.54 (s)
Dimethylamine x   x 2.72 (s)
Trimethylamine x   x 2.81 (s)
Asparagine   x   2.89 (m), 2.96 (m)
Choline x x x 3.20 (s)
Taurine x x   3.26 (t), 3.41 (t)
Methoxy group    x 3.83 (s)
β-Cellobiose x x   4.48 [8] (d)
β-Galactose    x 4.52 [7.8] (d)
β-Glucose x x x 4.65 [7.9] (d)
α-Cellobiose x x   5.20 [3.6] (d)
α-Glucose x x x 5.25 [3.7] (d)
α-Galactose    x 5.27 [3.7] (d)
Sucrose x x x 5.42 [3.8] (d)
Fumaric acid x x   6.56 (s)
Tyrosine x x x 6.88 [8.6] (d), 7.17 [8.6] (d)
Phenylalanine x x   7.33 (m), 7.38 (m), 7.43 (m)
Formiate    x 8.43 (s)
Flavonoids (aromatic signals)    x 6.5 to 9.0 range
  1. aValues of JH,H [square brackets] are given when assignable. BSG, brewers spent grain; FPR, fennel processing residues; LPR, lemon processing residues.