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Table 3 NH4 +-application and bio-effector effects on ear-leaf N and P, and grain yield (field experiment 2014)

From: Improving fertilizer-depot exploitation and maize growth by inoculation with plant growth-promoting bacteria: from lab to field

  Ear-leaf N conc. (%) Ear-leaf P conc. (mg g−1) Grain (Mg ha−1)
LS means NH4*BE
 NH4-Broad 3.28 4.17 7.23
 NH4-Broad*BE1 3.25 4.16 7.23
 NH4-Broad*BE2 3.15 4.06 7.05
 NH4-Depot 3.02 3.31 8.35
 NH4-Depot*BE1 3.02 3.40 7.41
 NH4-Depot*BE2 2.91 3.17 7.36
 Standard error 0.09 0.17 0.45
Two-Way ANOVA
 NH4 application method 0.0029** < 0.0001*** NS
 NH4-Broad 3.22 ± 0.05 a 4.13 ± 0.09 a 7.16 ± 0.28
 NH4-Depot 2.99 ± 0.05 b 3.29 ± 0.09 b 7.69 ± 0.29
 BE NS NS NS
 NoBE 3.15 ± 0.06 3.74 ± 0.12 7.74 ± 0.34
 BE1 3.14 ± 0.06 3.78 ± 0.12 7.35 ± 0.34
 BE2 3.03 ± 0.06 3.61 ± 0.12 7.19 ± 0.34
  1. P values are in italics, NS no significant difference when P ≥ 0.1; P < 0.1 is bold italics; * P < 0.5; ** P < 0.01; *** P < 0.001; Means ± standard errors not sharing the same letters are significantly different from each other, Tukey test α = 0.05; NH4-Broad starter fertilizer as mono-ammonium phosphate (MAP) followed by broadcasting and incorporation stabilized (NH4)2SO4 over the canopy
  2. NH4-Depot starter MAP and subsurface placement of concentrated stabilized (NH4)2SO4 solution in water at 10 cm soil depth; BE bio-effector, NoBE no bio-effector, BE1 Pseudomonas sp. DSMZ 13134, BE2 Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42, Ear-leaf N, and P (79 DAS, BBCH 61-75) and grain yield (172 DAS, BBCH 89-99)