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Table 2 Influence of carbon-based nanomaterials on plant growth and development

From: Carbon nanomaterials: production, impact on plant development, agricultural and environmental applications

Plant species Type of nanomaterial Size of NPs Concentration Growth medium/substrate Exposure duration Effect Ref
Cabbage, carrot, SWCNT, fSWCNT Ø 3 nm 28, 160, 900, 5000 mg L−1 DI water 2–3 days No effect [125]
Cucumber, onion, SWCNTfSWCNT Ø 3 nm 28, 160, 900, 5000 mg L−1 DI water 2–3 days Enhanced root elongation [125]
Arabidopsis, rice SWCNTs Ø 1–2 nm
L 5–30 µm
5–250 mg L−1 Cell culture 6–72 h Cell aggregation, chromatin condensation, plasma membrane deposition, H2O2 accumulation. [149]
Tomato lettuce, SWCNT, fSWCNT Ø 3 nm 28, 160, 900, 5000 mg L−1 DI water 2–3 days Inhibited root elongation [125]
Tomato SWCNTs Ø 0.86–2.22 nm 50 mg L−1 MS medium 10 days Increased fresh and dry plant biomass [151]
Maize MWCNTs Ø 6–9 nm
L 5 µm
5, 10, 20, 40, 60 mg L−1 Nutrient agar medium 7 days At 20 mg L−1 increased dry weight and Ca, Fe concentration. At high dose: depressed growth [127]
Barley, maize, soybean MWCNTs na 50, 100, 200 mg L−1 MS medium 10 days Increased leave length and biomass in maize, increased root length in soybean [128]
Tomato MWCNTs na 10, 20, 40 mg L−1 MS medium 20 days Increased stem length, biomass [154]
Wheat, rapeseed MWCNTs Ø 42.2 nm 1000 mg L−1 Hydroponic 7 days No impact on development; uptake by roots and translocation to leaves [171]
Wheat,rape seed MWCNTs Ø 10–150 nm 1000 mg L−1 Ultrapure water 7 days No effect on development [194]
Arabidopsis MWCNTs Ø 9.5 nm
L 1.5 µm
10, 60, 100, 600 mg L−1 Cell culture 7 days Decreased cell dry weight, cell viabilities, cell chlorophyll content, and superoxide dismutase activities [163]
Satureja MWCNTs Ø < 50 nm 25, 50, 100, 250, 500 mg L−1 Cell culture 3 weeks Increased callus growth [195]
Wheat, maize, peanut, garlic ws MWCNTs Ø 10–20 nm
L 10–30 µm
20, 50 mg L−1 DI water 5–10 days Root and shoot elongation [191]
Tomato MWCNTs Ø 25 nm   MS medium,later soil 9 weeks Enhanced growth, flower and fruit number formation [167]
Tomato MWCNTs Ø 10–35 nm
L 6 µm
50, 100, 200 mg L−1 MS medium 10 days Increased total biomass, up-regulation of stress-related genes; penetration into roots, leaves, and fruits [151]
Red spinach MWCNTs Ø 11 nm
L > 1 µm
125–1000 mg L−1 Modified Hoagland medium 15 days Inhibited root and shoot elongation, reduced weight, leaf area, enhanced electrolyte damage and ROS [122]
Onion MWCNTs Ø 7−15 nm 
L 0.5−200 µm
5, 20, 50 mg L−1 Filter sterilized water 24 h DNA damage [120]
Onion MWCNTs na 5 and 10 mg L−1 Filter sterilized water 24 h DNA damage [119]
Cucumber, rice, lettuce, red spinach MWCNTs Ø 13 nm
L > 1 µm
20, 200, 1000, 2000 mg L−1 Modified Hoagland medium (hydroponic) 15 days Decreased shoot length, biomass, increased membrane leakage [124]
Zucchini MWCNTs Ø 13–16 nm
L 1–10 µm
1000 mg L−1 Hoagland medium 12 days Reduced biomass [126]
Rice MWCNTs   na Cell culture   Decreased cell density [196]
Rice MWCNTs Ø < 10 nm
L 5–15 µm
20 mg L−1 Cell culture MS medium 6 days Decreased cell viability, increased ROS [164]
Maize, soybean MWCNTs   10–50 mg L−1 Hoagland solution 18 days Stimulated growth of maize, inhibited growth of soybean; uptake and translocation [129]
Wheat oMWCNTs Ø 6–13 nm
L 2.5–20 µm
10, 20, 40, 80, 160 mg L−1 DI water 7 days Increased cell elongation in roots, root length, biomass [159]
Common gram ws CNTs Ø 10–50 nm 6.0 mg L−1 Water 10 days Increased growth rate [197]
Tobacco CNPs na 25,75, 125 mg pot−1 na na Increased plant height, leaf area, dry matter accumulation, chlorophyll, soluble protein, N and K contents [198]
Arabidopsis CNTs na na Basal salt medium na Reduced photosynthesis, transpiration, carbon gain, chlorophyll fluorescence [199]
Rice MWCNTs Fullerene C70 Ø 5–40 nm
L 0.5–2 µm
2.5–800 mg L−1 NOM suspension 2 weeks MWCNTs: insignificant uptake C70: uptake, accumulation and translocation within the plant [145]
Radish Fullerene C60 Sand substrate and hydroponic 2 weeks Uptake by plants and transportation [146]
Pumpkin Fullerene C60 1670 mg kg−1 soil Sandy loam soil with DDT residues 21 days Increased shoot mass and decreased root mass [139]
Green algae, arabidopsis Fullerols 0.001–20 mg L−1 1–200 mg L−1 Cell culture 96 h Increased the algal culture density; enhanced growth in Arabidopsis [142]
Bitter melon Fullerols 0.943, 4.72, 9.43, 10.88, 47.2 nM Milli-Q water 48 h Increased fruit length, number, weight and phytomedicines content [143]
Tobacco Nano-carbon sol na 5–20 mg L−1 Water culture na Increased biomass, nitrogen, potassium, calcium and magnesium content [200]
Tobacco Nano-carbon sol na 5–10, 10–20 mg L−1 Water culture na Promoted root growth, increased shoot and root biomass and improved potassium content [201]
Faba bean GO 0.5–5 μm 400, 800 mg L−1 DI water na Decreased levels of H2O2, and lipid and protein oxidation, and enhanced H2O2 decomposing enzymes; increased proline and seed-relative water content [177]
Faba bean GO 0.5–5 μm 400, 800 mg L−1 DI water na Increased ratio of the reduced glutathione (GSH)-to oxidized GSH, reduced GSH pool and GSH reductase activity, decreased activities of GSH-metabolizing enzymes [176]
Faba bean GO 0.5–5 μm 100, 200, 1600 mg L−1 DI water na Reduced growth, reduced activity of H2O2-decomposing enzymes; increased levels of electrolyte leakage, H2O2, and lipid and protein oxidation [177]
Faba bean GO 0.5–5 μm 100, 200, 1600 mg L−1 DI water na Decreased (GSH) redox ratio, reduced GSH pool, elevated activities of GSH-regenerating and GSH-metabolizing enzymes [176]
Wheat GO na 0.1–10 mg L−1 Water na GO amplifies phytotoxicity of arsenic (As) [179]
Cabbage, tomato, red spinach, lettuce Graphene na 500, 1000, 2000 mg L−1 Modified Hoagland medium 20 days Inhibited plant growth and biomass [175]
Tomato Graphene na 40 mg L−1 DI water 11 days Longer roots and shoots, but reduced biomass [172]
Rice Graphene na 5, 50, 100, 200 mg L−1 na 16 days At 5 mg L−1: improved seedling growth, at higher concentration: inhibited growth [173]
  1. SWCNTs single-walled carbon nanotubes, fSWCNTs functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes, DI water deionized water, MWCNTs multi-walled carbon nanotubes, wsMWCNTs water soluble multi-walled carbon nanotubes, Ø diameter, L length, MS medium Murashige and Skoog medium, CNPs carbon nanoparticles, NOM natural organic matter, GSH glutathione, GO graphene oxide, DDT dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane