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Table 3 Nutrient concentration in the shoots and roots of wheat grown in the acidic soil (-a) and calcareous (-c) control soils (C), soil and P. bilaii (Pb), soil amended with sewage sludge (SS), sewage sludge and P. bilaii (SSPb), triple superphosphate (TSP) and triple superphosphate and P. bilaii (TSPPb)

From: The effect of Penicillium bilaii on wheat growth and phosphorus uptake as affected by soil pH, soil P and application of sewage sludge

  K Ca Mg S B Cu Fe Mn Zn Al
(%) (ppm)
Shoot
 C-a 3.65 ± 0.16a 2.33 ± 0.28a 0.24 ± 0.02a 0.32 ± 0.01a 16.0 ± 2.4a 7.0 ± 0.4a 122 ± 21ab 942 ± 117a 55 ± 1.4a 91 ± 28ab
 CPb-a 3.26 ± 0.13b 2.58 ± 0.45a 0.24 ± 0.03a 0.31 ± 0.007a 15.6 ± 1.6a 6.1 ± 0.4a 134 ± 27ab 999 ± 188a 50 ± 2.4ab 118 ± 37ab
 SS-a 3.73 ± 0.06a 1.36 ± 0.05b 0.16 ± 0.01b 0.32 ± 0.009a 14.2 ± 0.9a 8.0 ± 0.2a 154 ± 14a 454 ± 8.1b 54 ± 2.7b 126 ± 16b
 SSPb-a 3.73 ± 0.08a 1.47 ± 0.13b 0.17 ± 0.01b 0.32 ± 0.006a 14.5 ± 0.8a 7.4 ± 0.2a 102 ± 4.9b 503 ± 38b 52 ± 4.2ab 60 ± 6.8bc
 TSP-a 3.74 ± 0.05a 1.43 ± 0.07b 0.17 ± 0.01b 0.31 ± 0.002a 14.0 ± 0.9a 7.2 ± 0.1a 93 ± 6.7b 516 ± 28b 46 ± 0.7b 51 ± 9.4c
 TSPPb-a 3.72 ± 0.04a 1.36 ± 0.09b 0.16 ± 0.01b 0.32 ± 0.004a 15.5 ± 0.7a 7.2 ± 0.1a 89 ± 6.2b 493 ± 22b 50 ± 2.7ab 49 ± 6.7c
 C-c 4.19 ± 0.05a 1.24 ± 0.04ab 0.24 ± 0.003ab 0.33 ± 0.01ab 9.7 ± 0.7ab 9.7 ± 0.2ab 88 ± 9.5ab 46 ± 2.7a 73 ± 2.4b 56 ± 16ab
 CPb-c 3.92 ± 0.09b 1.22 ± 0.03ab 0.23 ± 0.004b 0.32 ± .004b 9.4 ± 0.4ab 9.2 ± 0.1ab 76 ± 3.1b 47 ± 1.5a 69 ± 3.9b 38 ± 2.4ab
 SS-c 3.99 ± 0.07b 1.26 ± 0.08a 0.24 ± 0.009ab 0.33 ± .004ab 8.5 ± 0.4b 9.5 ± 0.1b 103 ± 13a 44 ± 1.2a 74 ± 1.8b 82 ± 21b
 SSPb-c 3.90 ± 0.05b 1.24 ± 0.09ab 0.25 ± 0.007ab 0.33 ± .003ab 10.0 ± 0.4a 9.7 ± 0.1a 81 ± 3.8b 45 ± 1.3a 76 ± 2.7b 38 ± 3.5bc
 TSP-c 4.30 ± 0.07a 1.11 ± 0.01b 0.25 ± 0.006a 0.33 ± .002ab 8.9 ± 0.3ab 9.9 ± 0.1ab 92 ± 5.4ab 46 ± 2.0a 89 ± 4.6a 57 ± 8.0c
 TSPPb-c 4.27 ± 0.09a 1.14 ± 0.07ab 0.25 ± 0.006a 0.34 ± .003a 9.5 ± 0.3ab 9.9 ± 0.2ab 78 ± 1.3b 38 ± 1.6b 77 ± 4.8a 38 ± 3.7c
 Ref. * 1.5–3 0.2–0.5 0.15–0.5 0.15–0.4 6–10 5–25 25–100 25–100 15–70  
Root
 C-a 0.13 ± 0.01a 0.19 ± 0.009c 0.11 ± 0.009a 0.12 ± 0.002bc 5 ± 0.3a 59 ± 3.9a 4217 ± 443a 425 ± 42b 68 ± 5.6ab 5040 ± 534a
 CPb-a 0.13 ± 0.03a 0.19 ± 0.006c 0.11 ± 0.016ab 0.11 ± 0.003c 4 ± 0.8ab 14 ± 1.3ab 4421 ± 840a 412 ± 15b 67 ± 9.9ab 5227 ± 1001a
 SS-a 0.08 ± 0.01b 0.24 ± 0.02a 0.09 ± 0.006abc 0.13 ± 0.0008a 4 ± 0.3ab 43 ± 1.1ab 2881 ± 291abc 801 ± 95a 76 ± 6.7a 3324 ± 327b
 SSPb-a 0.06 ± 0.004b 0.23 ± 0.008ab 0.07 ± 0.003c 0.12 ± 0.003ab 3 ± 0.2b 16 ± 1.4b 2192 ± 141c 817 ± 49a 62 ± 1.9abc 2488 ± 170b
 TSP-a 0.07 ± 0.012b 0.21 ± 0.01abc 0.08 ± 0.007bc 0.12 ± 0.003ab 3 ± 0.5b 13 ± 0.3b 2511 ± 329bc 717 ± 57a 48 ± 2.8c 3032 ± 429b
 TSPPb-a 0.07 ± 0.008b 0.21 ± 0.01bc 0.08 ± 0.006abc 0.12 ± 0.002ab 3 ± 0.3b 15 ± 1.6b 2418 ± 303c 730 ± 113a 53 ± 1.7bc 2886 ± 368b
 C-c 0.06 ± 0.01ab 0.39 ± 0.005c 0.06 ± 0.005a 0.12 ± 0.002bc 4 ± 0.5ab 15 ± 1.1ab 1075 ± 191a 44 ± 6.6a 60 ± 10.8a 1584 ± 293a
 CPb-c 0.07 ± 0.004a 0.43 ± 0.002c 0.07 ± 0.002a 0.11 ± 0.004c 5 ± 0.1a 13 ± 1.6a 1294 ± 4.5a 48 ± 2.9a 36 ± 6.7b 1919 ± 88a
 SS-c 0.05 ± 0.002b 0.40 ± 0.003a 0.07 ± 0.001a 0.12 ± 0.001ab 3 ± 0.2b 14 ± 2.1b 981 ± 59a 40 ± 2.0a 36 ± 3.2b 1423 ± 91a
 SSPb-c 0.05 ± 0.006b 0.38 ± 0.003ab 0.07 ± 0.003a 0.12 ± 0.004ab 3 ± 0.3b 10 ± 0.6b 943 ± 111a 39 ± 3.5a 24 ± 2.1b 1351 ± 156a
 TSP-c 0.06 ± 0.009ab 0.39 ± 0.002abc 0.07 ± 0.004a 0.13 ± 0.002ab 3 ± 0.2b 11 ± 0.9b 1057 ± 157a 42 ± 2.8a 35 ± 5.4b 1555 ± 244a
 TSPPb-c 0.05 ± 0.009ab 0.45 ± 0.004bc 0.06 ± 0.003a 0.13 ± 0.002a 4 ± 0.5ab 13 ± 1.9ab 962 ± 241a 40 ± 6.1a 34 ± 2.0b 1375 ± 253a
  1. Values are mean of four replicates ± standard errors. Different letters indicate significant differences between treatments (P < 0.05)
  2. aSufficient range of nutrient concentrations proposed by Mills and Jones [31]