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Table 11 Standardized direct effects (italic font), standardized indirect effect (bold font) and standardized full effects (italic bold font) for constructs and measured variables in structural model

From: The effect of humic acid and water super absorbent polymer application on sesame in an ecological cropping system: a new employment of structural equation modeling in agriculture

  SoilProperties PlantPhysiology PlantArchitecture QualitativeYield
PlantPhisiology − 0.016 0.000 − 0.016 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
PlantArchitecture − 0.027 − 0.008 − 0.035 0.495 0.000 0.495 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
QualitativeYield 0.173 − 0.023 0.150 − 0.011 0.324 0.312 0.653 0.000 0.653 0.000 0.000 0.000
OilPercentage 0.000 0.103 0.103 0.000 0.215 0.215 0.000 0.449 0.449 0.688 0.000 0.688
ProteinPercentage 0.000 0.132 0.132 0.000 0.275 0.275 0.000 0.576 0.576 0.882 0.000 0.882
SeedW 0.000 − 0.008 − 0.008 0.526 0.000 0.526 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
SoilpH − 0.785 0.000 − 0.785 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
SoilEC 0.974 0.000 0.974 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
SoilN 0.805 0.000 0.805 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
PlantH 0.000 − 0.028 − 0.028 0.000 0.402 0.402 0.811 0.000 0.811 0.000 0.000 0.000
BiolY 0.000 − 0.008 − 0.008 0.542 0.000 0.542 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
SeedY 0.000 − 0.014 − 0.014 0.902 0.000 0.902 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
LAI 0.000 − 0.032 − 0.032 0.000 0.457 0.457 0.922 0.000 0.922 0.000 0.000 0.000
WUE 0.000 − 0.032 − 0.032 0.000 0.454 0.454 0.916 0.000 0.916 0.000 0.000 0.000
SoilP 0.000 − 0.015 − 0.015 0.981 0.000 0.981 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
CGR 0.000 − 0.015 − 0.015 0.958 0.000 0.958 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
  1. The effects of ecological inputs (superabsorbent polymer, humic acid) for cooperating to sesame efficiency for producing fatty oil was examined conducting structural equation modeling
  2. This study suggests a method to produce agrochemical-free products also improved qualitative and quantitative yield of sesame especially for marginal farmers with low input systems