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Table 1 The average physicochemical properties of the cane industrial effluents (mg/L) [11, 28,29,30,31]

From: Sugarcane biorefineries wastewater: bioremediation technologies for environmental sustainability

Parameter Sugar factory Ethanol distillery spent wash
Temperature (°C) 29.3–44.3 46.3–56.3
pH 6.7–8.4 3.9–4.9
Electric conductivity (µS/cm) 540.3–925.9 3910.0–50,500.0
BOD5 654.6–1968.5 50,000.0–60,000.0
COD 1100.3–2148.9 110,000.0–190,000.0
Chloride 30.5–866.6 6213.6–7475.7
Total hardness 356.2–2493.1 3100.3–4, 477.2
Calcium 365.4–468.0 2676.5–3389.8
Magnesium 214.8–341.0 816.3– 1828.1
Total solid 2452.3–3050.6 91,876.9–150,300.9
Total dissolved solids 1480.2–1915.1 13,000.0–88,265.1
Total suspended solids 220.3–790.7 3611.1–150,000.0
Nitrates 0.4–0.9 2.40.3–32.9
Organic –N 24.3–36.4 75.2–400.7
Ammonia –N 0.0–4.2 10.9–18.1
Total nitrogen 11.1–40.6 85.8–1355. 3
Phosphate 1.2–9.6 1.2–27.6
Sulfate 21.5–51.7 803.0–6050.5
Oil and greases 88.7–134.4 30.3–202.1