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Table 2 Technical impacts of laser-land-leveling technology

From: The impact assessment of technologies diffusion: a mixed methods analysis

Variables Positive impact No impact Mean rank
High Medium Low
Percent Frequency Percent Frequency Percent Frequency Percent Frequency
Uniform germination of crop 74.1 278 22.1 83 1.6 6 1.6 6 2.69
Uniform distribution of water 70.4 264 25.6 96 2.7 10 2.68
Facilitating agricultural activities 70.4 264 25.1 94 3.2 12 0.5 2 2.66
Water waste 73.1 274 17.9 67 6.9 26 1.1 4 2.64
Uniform growth of crop 69.3 260 26.1 98 2.4 9 1.6 6 2.64
Water consumption 65.9 247 30.4 114 2.4 9 0.5 2 2.62
Irrigation time 65.1 244 30.4 114 2.9 11 0.5 2 2.61
Cultivation in barren lands 67.7 254 24.8 93 3.5 13 2.7 10 2.59
Land consolidation 67.7 254 24.5 92 3.2 12 3.2 12 2.58
Crop yield 59.5 223 35.5 133 2.4 9 1.6 6 2.54
Machineries speed (time-saving) 63.2 237 28.5 107 5.3 20 2.1 8 2.54
Expansion of total area planting 61.9 232 28.3 106 5.6 21 2.9 11 2.51
Cretes sizes 61.1 229 30.4 114 4.5 17 2.9 11 2.51
Improving machineries traverse (improving field trafficability) 60.8 228 29.6 111 6.1 23 2.7 10 2.49
Deep percolation of water 62.1 233 25.9 97 6.9 26 3.7 14 2.48
Using conservation tillage 57.3 215 31.2 117 5.6 21 2.7 10 2.47
Using chopper combine 54.9 206 26.7 100 5.1 19 3.5 13 2.47
Traffic of tractor in the field 61.9 232 26.7 100 6.9 26 3.7 14 2.47
Cultivable area (farm useful area) 55.2 207 36.5 137 5.3 20 2.1 8 2.45
Using zero tillage planting 65.9 247 30.4 114 2.4 9 0.5 2 2.41
Using modern solutions sprayer 57.1 214 27.2 102 5.3 20 6.4 24 2.40
Time taken for land preparation 54.9 206 32.3 121 6.1 23 5.1 19 2.39
Combination use 56.3 211 29.1 109 7.2 27 5.1 19 2.39
Tillage operation 49.3 185 38.7 145 6.7 25 3.7 14 2.35
Time taken for harvesting 54.9 206 31.7 119 5.1 19 7.5 28 2.35
Density of crop 53.1 199 34.1 128 5.6 21 6.1 23 2.35
Cropping pattern 57.3 215 27.5 103 4.8 18 8.8 33 2.35
Coping with drought 53.1 199 31.7 119 8.3 31 5.6 21 2.34
Crop shedding 57.3 215 26.9 101 5.3 20 8.8 33 2.34
Moisture-holding capacity 51.2 192 35.7 134 4.3 16 7.5 28 2.32
Farm infrastructures 52.8 198 30.1 113 5.9 22 9.9 37 2.27
Time taken for planting 50.7 190 32.8 123 5.3 20 10.1 38 2.25
Underground waters level 50.1 188 31.7 119 7.2 27 9.6 36 2.24
Fossil fuel consumption 43.5 163 35.2 132 10.1 38 5.6 21 2.23
Crop diversity 49.3 185 32.0 120 6.1 23 11.5 43 2.20
Crop rotation 45.1 169 34.7 130 5.6 21 12.5 47 2.14
Frequency of irrigation 46.4 174 31.7 119 8.5 32 12.3 46 2.13
Land fallow 46.7 175 30.1 113 6.4 24 15.7 59 2.08
Electricity use 42.7 160 32.5 122 5.9 22 15.2 57 2.06
Seed consumption 40.3 151 36.0 135 8.3 31 14.4 54 2.03
Irrigation method 47.5 178 24.5 92 3.2 12 23.5 88 1.97
Pesticide consumption 30.9 116 35.7 134 9.6 36 23.2 87 1.74
Fertilizer consumption 27.5 103 35.5 133 9.3 35 26.7 100 1.64
Number of spraying pesticides 26.1 98 33.1 124 8.3 31 31.5 118 1.54
Harvest date 27.2 102 27.5 103 8.8 33 35.2 132 1.47
Turnaround time between harvesting one crop and planting another 24.8 93 24.0 90 8.0 30 40.5 152 1.33
Planting date 22.4 84 23.5 87 7.5 28 45.9 172 1.22
Yielding period length 20.3 76 21.9 82 5.9 22 48.8 183 1.14