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Table 3 Percentage pupal weight reduction by nanoformulation treatment against third instar larvae of Spodoptera litura by topical application method

From: Assessment of the pesticidal behaviour of diacyl hydrazine-based ready-to-use nanoformulations

Test formulationsConcentration (%)
0.10.050.010.0050.001
Control0a,z0a,z0a,z0a,z0a,z
STD88.26 ± 1.36a,xy80.71 ± 2.75b,x70.30 ± 7.22c,wx67.69 ± 2.88 cd,wxy62.04 ± 2.53d,vwx
NF179.88 ± 5.85a,w77.83 ± 4.12a,x73.32 ± 7.84ab,xy65.51 ± 1.89bc,vwx59.25 ± 2.39c,uv
167.51 ± 5.97a,v62.44 ± 1.91ab,w60.05 ± 5.96abc,w56.52 ± 2.9bc,u53.62 ± 4.71c,u
NF286.79 ± 3.28a,wxy80.49 ± 3.38ab,x73.04 ± 7.42bc,xy65.28 ± 5.43 cd,uvwx60.06 ± 3.07d,uvw
NF382.14 ± 4.90a,wx80.52 ± 3.88a,x76.81 ± 5.32a,xy65.14 ± 3.09b,uvwx60.46 ± 2.88b,vw
NF4100c,u76.36 ± 5.13a,x72.23 ± 3.11a,xy61.91 ± 6.42b,uvwx58.13 ± 4.68b,uv
NF579.21 ± 3.72a,w77.04 ± 4.90ab,x70.78 ± 4.63b,wx59.69 ± 1.56c,uvw56.48 ± 2.51c,uv
NF6100c,u73.96 ± 7.91a,x71.01 ± 7.52ab,wx62.61 ± 8.28b,uvwx67.52 ± 3.29ab,xy
NF790.46 ± 5.17a,y89.17 ± 2.10a,y82.33 ± 4.87b,y75.40 ± 2.97bc,y68.99 ± 2.44c,y
768.29 ± 6.19a,v64.23 ± 3.12ab,w60.28 ± 5.20abc,w58.59 ± 6.34bc,uv53.83 ± 2.90c,u
NF881.79 ± 3.31a,wx79.38 ± 2.42ab,x74.69 ± 3.98bc,xy69.73 ± 3.86 cd,xy65.75 ± 4.95d,wxy
  1. Data are represented as a mean ± SD of each of ten replicates (n = 10) in percentage. Same letters indicate no significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) between different test formulations (a, b, c) and concentrations (u, v, wx, y, z) used in our study according to Tukey’s HSD and Games Howell’s test. Italics show formulation and concentrations which can be selected for further investigation studies. NF Nanoformulations; 1: non-nanoparent compound 1; 7: non-nanoparent compound 7. Methoxyfenozide was used as the standard (STD) in this study