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Table 2 Influence of SA and salt stress on essential oils yield and composition in S. officinalis

From: Improving salinity tolerance in Salvia officinalis L. by foliar application of salicylic acid

  Control SA 0.5 mM SA 1 mM NaCl NaCl + SA 0.5 mM NaCl + SA 1 mM
Oils content (%) 1.2 ± 0.01a 1.5 ± 0.01b 1.8 ± 0.1c 0.8 ± 0.1d 1.7 ± 0.1e 1.3 ± 0.1f
Components Peak area %
Hydrocarbon monoterpenes
 Tricyclene 0.21 0.24 0.26 nd nd nd
 α-Pinene nd 7.44 2.00 2.09 2.89 2.93
 β-Terpinene 6.43 nd nd 2.00 2.69 2.88
 Camphene 4.30 4.62 5.30 nd 4.07 nd
 β-Pinene 1.85 2.24 nd 2.09 1.93 2.54
 β-Myrcene 1.02 1.11 1.20 1.92 nd 1.21
 α-Terpinene 0.12 nd nd Tr 0.20 1.76
 Terpinolene 0.25 0.36 0.40 0.88 0.16 0.85
 α-Ocimene 0.10 nd nd nd nd nd
 β-Ocimene 0.17 0.11 Nd nd 0.12 nd
 γ-Terpinene nd nd 0.31 0.68 nd 0.68
 2-Carene nd 0.15 0.12 nd nd nd
 Cis-Sabinene hydrate 0.21 nd nd nd nd nd
 Pseudolimonene nd nd 8.30 nd nd nd
 Total (%) 14.66 16.27 17.90 9.66 12.06 12.85
Oxygenated monoterpenes
 1,8-Cineole 14.92 15.06 15.57 10.00 14.00 14.14
 Thujanone nd nd nd 15.73 16.62 6.00
 Thujanol 0.10 nd nd 0.72 nd 0.23
 β-Terpineol 0.12 nd nd 0.15 0.19 0.22
 β-Thujone 2.90 3.42 3.50 1.55 0.40 0.12
 α-Thujone 27.43 22.22 21.11 20.20 25.38 27.58
 Camphor 26.41 27.44 27.81 19.11 23.05 24.62
 Thujol 0.64 nd 0.32 nd nd nd
 Endo-borneol 0.62 1.47 2.63 1.35 0.73 1.07
 Borneol nd nd nd 0.83 nd 0.48
 Bornyl acetate 1.83 nd 0.90 1.41 nd 0.51
 Terpinen-4-ol 0.87 nd 0.80 0.88 nd 0.90
 l-α-Terpineol nd 0.40 0.66 1.58 0. 40 0.35
 Myrtenol nd nd nd 0.27 0.26 0.24
 Estragol 0.59 0.82 0.91 nd nd nd
 Pulegone nd 0.10 0.11 0.45 0.11 0.16
 Costol nd nd nd 0.38 nd nd
 Totale (%) 76 71.73 74.44 74.61 81. 14 76. 62
Hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes
 Cariophyllene 1.11 1.82 1.4 1.29 2.24 1.30
 Humulene 0.92 1.57 1.6 1.00 0.13 1.09
 γ-Muurolene nd 0.14 0.10 0.24 0.18 0.16
 Cadinene nd 0,13 nd nd nd nd
 β-Longipinene nd nd nd 0.34 0.30 0.17
 Germacrene-D Tr nd 0.12 0.17 nd 0.14
 Total (%) 2.03 3.66 3.1 3.04 2.88 2.86
Oxygenated sesquiterpenes
 Geranyl isovalerate nd nd nd 0.18 nd 0.13
 Sabinol isovalerate 0. 31 nd 0.17 nd 0.36 0.38
 Caryophyllene oxide 0.98 0.79 0.72 0.65 0.71 0.29
 Humulene epoxide II 0.65 0.78 0.75 0.49 0.96 1.30
 Viridiflorol nd 2.81 2.70 0.32 0.71 0.29
 Caryophylladienol II nd nd nd 0.38 0.24 0.17
 β-Santalol nd nd nd 0.29 0.30 0.22
 Total (%) 1.94 4.38 4.34 2.31 2.58 2.78
 Total identified (%) 94.61 96.04 99.77 89.62 98.66 95.11
  1. The values followed by different letters are significantly different (P ≤ 0.05)
  2. SA salicylic acid, nd not detected, tr trace (< 0.1%)