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Table 3 Leaf, seed and herb essential oil components of A. graveolens

From: Chemical components of essential oils and biological activities of the aqueous extract of Anethum graveolens L. grown under inorganic and organic conditions

  Essential oil components/Treatments RT (min) Control 30 kg ha−1 AN 60 kg ha−1 AN 90 kg ha−1 AN 120 kg ha−1 AN 7.5 t ha−1 FYM 10 t ha−1 FYM 12.5 t ha−1 FYM 15 t ha−1 FYM
Leaf Essential oil components α-pinene 13.21 4.35 ± 0.08f 4.77 ± 0.22c 5.66 ± 0.22a 3.41 ± 0.22h 4.63 ± 0.18e 3.63 ± 0.12g 3.22 ± 0.18ı 5.29 ± 0.78b 4.67 ± 0.48d
β-pinene 14.28 0.64 ± 0.07b 0.65 ± 0.07b 0.78 ± 0.06a 0.36 ± 0.04e 0.47 ± 0.08d 0.37 ± 0.08e 0.37 ± 0.08e 0.62 ± 0.03c 0.48 ± 0.05d
Mycrene 14.46 2.07 ± 0.01f 2.31 ± 0.02c 2.59 ± 0.88a 1.52 ± 0.12ı 2.15 ± 0.33e 2.03 ± 0.12g 1.66 ± 0.11h 2.33 ± 0.16b 2.25 ± 0.16d
α-phellandrene 14.97 8.47 ± 0.07e 10.36 ± 1.12b 5.62 ± 0.65ı 7.62 ± 0.36g 8.75 ± 0.75d 8.22 ± 0.56f 6.08 ± 0.62h 9.61 ± 0.88c 10.89 ± 1.01a
Limonene 15.45 7.44 ± 0.23ı 8.51 ± 0.88f 8.06 ± 0.68g 9.23 ± 0.18c 9.32 ± 0.56b 9.38 ± 0.56a 9.00 ± 0.65d 7.59 ± 0.76h 8.95 ± 0.72e
4-isopropyltoluen 15.57 2.13 ± 0.02c 3.02 ± 0.18a 1.74 ± 0.08d 2.28 ± 0.08b 1.20 ± 0.06f 1.43 ± 0.05e 1.03 ± 0.06g 1.00 ± 0.03h 0.95 ± 0.05ı
β -phellandrene 15.61 6.24 ± 0.08f 8.12 ± 0.22a 7.16 ± 0.16c 7.58 ± 0.52b 4.37 ± 0.36g 3.65 ± 0.23h 6.48 ± 0.33e 6.65 ± 0.28d 3.61 ± 0.26ı
Terpinen 16.73 0.21 ± 0.00c 0.28 ± 0.05b 0.32 ± 0.06a 0.10 ± 0.01g 0.19 ± 0.01d 0.12 ± 0.02f 0.14 ± 0.05e 0.27 ± 0.03b 0.19 ± 0.02d
Linalool 17.14 1.06 ± 0.05a 0.64 ± 0.02g 0.94 ± 0.03e 0.87 ± 0.06f 1.00 ± 0.02c 0.97 ± 0.10d 0.87 ± 0.02f 0.64 ± 0.04g 1.03 ± 0.08b
Limonen oxide 18.35 1.17 ± 0.08e 0.63 ± 0.03g 0.83 ± 0.03f 1.83 ± 0.08a 1.51 ± 0.11c 1.20 ± 0.08d 1.50 ± 0.08d 0.52 ± 0.05h 1.58 ± 0.12b
Dill ether 19.45 5.87 ± 0.10g 6.55 ± 0.46d 6.15 ± 0.73f 6.72 ± 0.89c 6.85 ± 0.26b 5.42 ± 0.52h 6.89 ± 0.52a 6.42 ± 0.65e 6.85 ± 0.76b
Carvone 20.17 6.50 ± 0.09g 6.61 ± 0.18f 7.22 ± 0.21d 6.50 ± 1.14g 7.81 ± 0.12a 7.69 ± 0.22c 6.95 ± 0.26e 6.31 ± 0.19h 7.71 ± 0.20b
Dihydro carvone 20.35 5.14 ± 0.10e 1.78 ± 0.12h 4.76 ± 0.16f 6.67 ± 0.62d 8.31 ± 1.18a 7.71 ± 0.95c 6.68 ± 0.66d 4.47 ± 0.23g 8.17 ± 0.62b
Anethole 20.55 0.51 ± 0.02h 1.78 ± 0.16d 0.94 ± 0.08g 1.51 ± 0.52e 2.92 ± 0.36b 3.03 ± 0.38a 2.32 ± 0.22c 1.38 ± 0.22f 2.93 ± 0.32b
Carvantonacetone 21.02 5.78 ± 0.23e 7.68 ± 1.12c 2.98 ± 0.22ı 15.90 ± 2.34a 4.19 ± 0.52g 3.65 ± 0.46h 11.66 ± 1.89b 6.40 ± 0.46b 4.22 ± 0.56f
Methyl cinnamate 21.98 1.42 ± 0.08a 1.06 ± 0.11g 1.36 ± 0.11c 1.12 ± 0.13e 1.39 ± 0.23b 1.06 ± 0.08g 1.09 ± 0.09f 1.22 ± 0.22d 0.99 ± 0.12h
Isocaryophyllene 23.15 1.81 ± 0.05a 1.01 ± 0.03c 1.10 ± 0.04b 0.02 ± 0.00f 0.03 ± 0.00ef 0.03 ± 0.00ef 0.04 ± 0.00de 0.05 ± 0.00d 0.03 ± 0.00ef
α-humulene 24.14 0.38 ± 0.09a 0.22 ± 0.04e 0.32 ± 0.03c 0.14 ± 0.01g 0.33 ± 0.06bc 0.15 ± 0.00g 0.18 ± 0.00f 0.34 ± 0.01b 0.25 ± 0.03d
Caryophyllene oxide 27.42 0.35 ± 0.05b 0.18 ± 0.01c 0.12 ± 0.01d 0.01 ± 0.00g 0.05 ± 0.00e 0.03 ± 0.00f 1.13 ± 0.08a 0.06 ± 0.00e 0.05 ± 0.00e
Apiole 27.77 9.79 ± 0.36f 10.45 ± 1.08d 5.36 ± 0.22g 10.80 ± 0.97c 2.62 ± 0.05ı 11.10 ± 0.69b 11.96 ± 0.83a 10.39 ± 0.56e 2.75 ± 0.09h
α-bisabolol 28.78 0.09 ± 0.00c 0.06 ± 0.03e 0.07 ± 0.02de 0.14 ± 0.05a 0.12 ± 0.06b 0.08 ± 0.03cd 0.06 ± 0.03e 0.15 ± 0.03a 0.14 ± 0.00a
Total (%)   71.42 ± 0.19e 76.67 ± 0.26c 64.08 ± 0.18ı 84.33 ± 0.11a 68.21 ± 0.16h 70.95 ± 0.20f 79.31 ± 0.20b 71.71 ± 0.32d 68.69 ± 0.26g
Herb essential oil components α-pinene 13.21 5.53 ± 0.59d 6.53 ± 0.63a 3.91 ± 0.61h 5.40 ± 0.89e 3.80 ± 0.63ı 5.36 ± 0.61f 6.39 ± 0.84b 5.74 ± 0.63c 4.73 ± 0.56g
β-pinene 14.28 1.05 ± 0.06a 0.43 ± 0.02f 0.98 ± 0.08b 0.91 ± 0.11d 0.92 ± 0.09d 0.91 ± 0.09d 0.55 ± 0.09e 0.95 ± 0.12c 1.05 ± 0.13a
Mycrene 14.46 7.13 ± 0.89c 5.22 ± 0.26ı 6.94 ± 0.36e 7.44 ± 0.68a 6.81 ± 0.66f 6.65 ± 0.88g 6.06 ± 1.01h 7.04 ± 0.74d 7.17 ± 0.78b
α-phellandrene 14.97 3.72 ± 0.23h 6.17 ± 0.36g 6.95 ± 0.42d 7.21 ± 0.86a 7.18 ± 0.86b 6.49 ± 0.65f 6.64 ± 0.62e 7.11 ± 0.78c 6.94 ± 0.68d
Limonene 15.45 7.71 ± 1.08d 3.79 ± 0.78ı 7.47 ± 0.82f 9.01 ± 1.11a 8.56 ± 1.15c 6.14 ± 0.88g 5.90 ± 0.98h 7.69 ± 0.56e 8.75 ± 0.86b
4-isopropyltoluen 15.57 6.04 ± 0.53h 7.29 ± 0.78e 6.25 ± 0.89g 8.24 ± 0.89a 8.14 ± 0.88b 7.67 ± 1.02c 4.99 ± 0.88ı 7.39 ± 1.02d 7.08 ± 0.68f
β -phellandrene 15.61 6.82 ± 0.68b 5.94 ± 0.65d 6.81 ± 0.75b 6.37 ± 0.63c 5.64 ± 0.46e 5.11 ± 0.56g 7.08 ± 0.76a 5.58 ± 0.66f 7.07 ± 0.78a
Terpinen 16.73 0.94 ± 0.02b 0.34 ± 0.04g 0.89 ± 0.05d 0.99 ± 0.11a 0.91 ± 0.05c 0.91 ± 0.05c 0.82 ± 0.03f 0.93 ± 0.03b 0.87 ± 0.03e
Linalool 17.14 0.87 ± 0.02b 0.49 ± 0.03h 0.79 ± 0.03cd 0.66 ± 0.02g 0.74 ± 0.02e 0.78 ± 0.02d 0.80 ± 0.02c 0.96 ± 0.05a 0.72 ± 0.05f
Limonen oxide 18.35 1.41 ± 0.12a 0.69 ± 0.06g 1.23 ± 0.16c 1.17 ± 0.16f 1.23 ± 0.05a 0.06 ± 0.00h 1.21 ± 0.12d 1.26 ± 0.18b 1.19 ± 0.16e
Dill ether 19.45 8.58 ± 0.89b 7.16 ± 0.88ı 9.13 ± 1.12a 7.90 ± 1.01e 7.61 ± 0.72f 7.52 ± 0.98g 7.40 ± 0.62h 8.41 ± 0.56c 7.96 ± 0.62d
Carvone 20.17 6.84 ± 0.32b 6.10 ± 0.56h 6.65 ± 0.56e 7.34 ± 0.65a 3.98 ± 0.08ı 6.59 ± 0.12f 6.67 ± 0.56d 6.55 ± 0.72g 6.75 ± 0.86c
Dihydro carvone 20.35 1.69 ± 0.08a 1.22 ± 0.12e 1.69 ± 0.13a 1.23 ± 0.16e 1.58 ± 0.22c 1.70 ± 0.23a 1.48 ± 0.12d 1.69 ± 0.16a 1.61 ± 0.26b
Anethole 20.55 0.08 ± 0.02b 0.04 ± 0.01d 0.08 ± 0.00b 0.05 ± 0.00cd 0.08 ± 0.00b 0.10 ± 0.01a 0.04 ± 0.00d 0.06 ± 0.00c 0.06 ± 0.00c
Carvantonacetone 21.02 1.44 ± 0.22f 1.58 ± 0.36e 1.71 ± 0.26c 1.66 ± 0.09d 1.89 ± 0.23a 1.65 ± 0.26d 1.82 ± 0.12b 1.89 ± 0.23a 1.41 ± 0.23g
Methyl cinnamate 21.98 0.86 ± 0.01c 0.79 ± 0.08e 0.80 ± 0.09de 0.71 ± 0.08f 0.90 ± 0.03b 0.79 ± 0.01e 1.18 ± 0.32a 0.87 ± 0.14c 0.81 ± 0.16d
Isocaryophyllene 23.15 0.08 ± 0.02c 0.16 ± 0.01a 0.06 ± 0.01d 0.17 ± 0.02a 0.02 ± 0.00e 0.06 ± 0.00d 0.10 ± 0.01b 0.10 ± 0.00b 0.07 ± 0.00cd
α-humulene 24.14 0.23 ± 0.06g 2.72 ± 0.16a 0.38 ± 0.09c 0.46 ± 0.06b 0.27 ± 0.13f 0.34 ± 0.08d 0.31 ± 0.08e 0.18 ± 0.00h 0.38 ± 0.09c
Caryophyllene oxide 27.42 0.10 ± 0.00e 0.12 ± 0.00d 0.05 ± 0.00f 0.22 ± 0.01b 0.01 ± 0.00g 0.15 ± 0.01c 0.29 ± 0.08a 0.13 ± 0.01d 0.12 ± 0.01d
Apiole 27.77 1.41 ± 0.08c 0.87 ± 0.03h 1.18 ± 0.06f 0.83 ± 0.08ı 1.54 ± 0.22b 2.05 ± 0.23a 1.11 ± 0.13g 1.32 ± 0.12d 1.26 ± 0.16e
α-bisabolol 28.78 0.93 ± 0.02c 1.09 ± 0.23a 0.08 ± 0.00de 0.04 ± 0.00g 0.06 ± 0.00f 1.04 ± 0.08b 0.09 ± 0.01d 0.06 ± 0.02f 0.07 ± 0.02ef
Total (%)   63.46 ± 0.36e 58.74 ± 0.28ı 64.03 ± 1.04d 68.01 ± 0.56a 61.87 ± 0.48g 62.07 ± 0.38f 60.93 ± 0.37h 65.91 ± 0.29c 66.07 ± 0.36b
Seed essential oil components α-pinene 13.21 0.43 ± 0.22ı 0.51 ± 0.36h 0.70 ± 0.35e 0.93 ± 0.45d 1.05 ± 0.12a 0.59 ± 0.18g 0.99 ± 0.11b 0.61 ± 0.21f 0.96 ± 0.12c
β-Pinene 14.28 0.22 ± 0.23de 0.24 ± 0.45c 0.21 ± 0.06e 0.23 ± 0.06cd 0.26 ± 0.08b 0.23 ± 0.02cd 0.28 ± 0.02a 0.19 ± 0.02f 0.26 ± 0.06b
Mycrene 14.46 1.25 ± 0.23f 1.27 ± 0.62e 1.37 ± 0.32d 1.58 ± 0.22b 1.56 ± 0.23c 1.56 ± 0.32c 1.97 ± 0.23a 0.87 ± 0.23g 1.56 ± 0.23c
α -phellandrene 14.97 9.03 ± 0.26h 9.20 ± 1.16g 9.59 ± 1.18e 10.43 ± 1.59b 10.79 ± 1.26a 9.71 ± 1.33d 9.50 ± 0.82f 7.99 ± 1.11ı 10.34 ± 2.14c
Limonene 15.45 11.26 ± 0.56h 11.61 ± 0.63g 12.95 ± 0.56c 15.11 ± 0.43b 12.47 ± 0.45f 12.88 ± 0.56d 10.23 ± 0.52ı 20.05 ± 0.45a 12.53 ± 0.62e
4-isopropyltoluen 15.57 4.26 ± 0.26d 4.52 ± 0.23c 2.63 ± 0.23e 1.29 ± 0.18ı 1.82 ± 0.12g 1.96 ± 0.18f 6.78 ± 0.26a 4.83 ± 0.12b 1.55 ± 0.23h
β -phellandrene 15.61 2.66 ± 0.22f 3.24 ± 0.08e 3.45 ± 0.08c 3.38 ± 0.08d 2.49 ± 0.13g 2.65 ± 0.22f 5.21 ± 0.32a 0.04 ± 0.01h 3.61 ± 0.12b
Terpinen 16.73 0.05 ± 0.01cd 0.04 ± 0.00d 0.04 ± 0.01d 0.06 ± 0.00c 2.29 ± 0.09a 0.05 ± 0.00cd 0.10 ± 0.02b 0.02 ± 0.00e 0.05 ± 0.01cd
Linalool 17.14 1.47 ± 0.06f 1.77 ± 0.08d 1.67 ± 0.06e 1.88 ± 0.12c 4.01 ± 0.16a 1.76 ± 0.08d 2.71 ± 0.12b 0.94 ± 0.06g 1.76 ± 0.08d
Limonen oxide 18.35 2.09 ± 0.12d 2.30 ± 0.22c 2.07 ± 0.22e 2.51 ± 0.22b 0.04 ± 0.01g 2.30 ± 0.11c 3.48 ± 0.09a 1.25 ± 0.10f 2.09 ± 0.18d
Dill ether 19.45 1.52 ± 0.11f 1.11 ± 0.18ı 1.31 ± 0.08g 1.93 ± 0.11c 1.79 ± 0.07d 1.55 ± 0.11e 2.53 ± 0.22a 1.25 ± 0.11h 2.27 ± 0.13b
Carvone 20.17 5.89 ± 0.26g 6.71 ± 0.65b 7.02 ± 0.33a 5.82 ± 0.37h 6.45 ± 0.48c 6.24 ± 0.46f 3.60 ± 0.26d 6.32 ± 0.46d 6.30 ± 0.36e
Dihydro carvone 20.35 9.82 ± 1.23e 11.57 ± 2.32b 10.09 ± 1.26d 10.27 ± 0.98c 9.66 ± 0.96f 9.05 ± 0.88h 8.08 ± 1.02ı 12.11 ± 1.32a 9.07 ± 0.68g
Anethole 20.55 1.29 ± 0.11e 2.88 ± 0.56a 0.87 ± 0.08d 1.32 ± 0.12d 0.73 ± 0.06h 0.83 ± 0.06g 1.62 ± 0.05c 1.72 ± 0.12b 0.73 ± 0.06h
Carvantonacetone 21.02 12.28 ± 0.65d 16.51 ± 1.12b 15.10 ± 1.16c 10.51 ± 0.99f 5.04 ± 0.62ı 11.83 ± 0.92e 6.06 ± 0.01g 5.38 ± 0.18h 21.76 ± 1.62a
Methyl cinnamate 21.98 1.34 ± 0.18g 1.54 ± 0.22d 1.58 ± 0.08c 1.74 ± 0.16b 1.36 ± 0.16f 1.59 ± 0.16c 2.30 ± 0.19a 0.61 ± 0.08h 1.50 ± 0.13e
Isocaryophyllene 23.15 0.15 ± 0.02de 0.14 ± 0.01e 0.21 ± 0.01b 0.20 ± 0.01b 0.17 ± 0.02c 0.16 ± 0.02cd 0.33 ± 0.03a 0.09 ± 0.00f 0.15 ± 0.03de
α-humulene 24.14 0.03 ± 0.00c 0.04 ± 0.00bc 0.05 ± 0.02ab 0.06 ± 0.01a 0.05 ± 0.01ab 0.05 ± 0.01ab 0.06 ± 0.01a 0.04 ± 0.00bc 0.04 ± 0.00bc
Caryophyllene oxide 27.42 0.01 ± 0.00c 0.04 ± 0.00a 0.01 ± 0.00c 0.03 ± 0.01ab 0.01 ± 0.00c 0.03 ± 0.00ab 0.01 ± 0.00c 0.02 ± 0.00bc 0.02 ± 0.00bc
Apiole 27.77 15.04 ± 0.89d 14.29 ± 1.13f 13.55 ± 1.13h 16.40 ± 1.52b 14.24 ± 1.23g 18.65 ± 1.89a 14.32 ± 0.98e 15.95 ± 1.16c 14.24 ± 0.78g
α-bisabolol 28.78 0.05 ± 0.01b 0.05 ± 0.01b 0.05 ± 0.01b 0.04 ± 0.01bc 0.09 ± 0.00a 0.04 ± 0.00bc 0.09 ± 0.01a 0.03 ± 0.00c 0.05 ± 0.00b
Total (%)   80.14 ± 0.32h 89.58 ± 0.56b 84.52 ± 0.36d 85.72 ± 0.48c 76.37 ± 0.72ı 83.71 ± 0.22e 80.25 ± 0.48g 80.31 ± 1.18f 90.84 ± 0.73a
  1. *RT Retention time, AN Ammonium nitrate, FYM Farmyard manure
  2. Average values of three replicates
  3. Values with different letters in the same column indicate significant differences at p < 0.05
  4. Leaf, seed and herb essential oil components were evaluated separately