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Table 1 Influence of carbon-based nanomaterials on seed germination

From: Carbon nanomaterials: production, impact on plant development, agricultural and environmental applications

Plant specie Type of NPs Size of NPs Concentration (mg L−1) Germination medium Exposure duration Effects Ref
Maize SWCNTs Ø 1–2 nm
L 30 µm
20 MS medium 72 h No effect on seed germination [118]
Radish, rape, ryegrass, lettuce, maize, cucumber MWCNTs Ø 10–20 nm
L 1–2 µm
2000 DI water 5 days No effect on seed germination [158]
Alfalfa, wheat MWCNTs Ø 3 ± 4 nm 40–2560 Agar medium 4 days No effect on seed germination [190]
Zucchini MWCNTs Ø 13–16 nm
L 1–10 µm
1000 Hoagland medium 12 days No effect on seed germination [126]
Mustard, black lentil MWCNTs Ø 110–170 nm
L 5–9 µm
10, 20, 40 DI water 7 days No effect on seed germination [160]
Wheat oMWCNTs Ø 6–13 nm
L 2.5–0 µm
10, 20, 40, 80, 160 DI water 7 days No effect on seed germination [159]
Wheat, maize, peanut, garlic bulb wsMWCNTs Ø 10–20 nmL 10–30 µm 20, 50 DI water 5–10 days Enhanced germination [191]
Barley, maize, soybean MWCNTs na 50, 100, 200 MS medium 10 days Accelerated germination [128]
Barley, maize, soybean, MWCNTs na 25, 50, 100 (spray) Water 10 days At 25 mg L−1 no effect, at 100 mg L−1 increased germination rate [128]
Tomato MWCNTs na 10, 20, 40 MS medium 20 days Increased seed moisture content, accelerated germination, improved germination rate [154]
Rice CNTs Ø 8 nm
L 30 µm
50, 100, 150 MS medium 6 days Enhanced germination speed and rate [192]
Rice CNTs na na Basal growth medium na Increased seed water content, germination rate [156]
Tomato, onion, turnip, radish CNTs Ø 8– 15 nm
L > 10 μm
10, 20 and 40 Ultra-pure water 12 days Improved germination of tomato and onion [193]
Tomato Graphene na 40 DI water 11 days Accelerated germination [172]
Rice Graphene na 5, 50, 100, 200 na 16 days Delayed germination with the increasing of graphene concentration [173]
Wheat Graphene, GO, graphene ribbon   200 Water 5 days Graphene and GO: inhibited germination, graphene ribbon: enhanced germination [174]
  1. Ø diameter, L length, DI water deionized water, wsMWCNTs water soluble MWCNTs, oMWCNTs oxidized MWCNTs, MS medium Murashige and Skoog medium, GO graphene oxide