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Table 1 Characteristics of the community-based soil and water conservation measures

From: Effect of community-based soil and water conservation practices on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi types, spore densities, root colonization, and soil nutrients in the northern highlands of Ethiopia

SWC measures Characteristics
Non-conserved communal grazing land Low vegetation cover
High proportion of bare soil
Coarse fragment (57%)
Sheet, rill, and gully erosion very common
Relatively low organic carbon (1.9%)
Moisture content (8.6%)
Bulk density (1290 kg m−3)
Area (11–34.96 ha)
Stone terraces Relatively more stable and durable than other physical SWC measures
Soil organic carbon (2.5%)
Moisture content (9.6%)
Bulk density (1260 kg m−3)
Coarse fragment (53%)
High sediment deposit
Area (13.87–24.42 ha)
Exclosure + terrace Closed from the interference of humans and livestock
Enrichment planting common
Supported with terraces
High organic carbon (2.9%)
Sheet, rill, and gully formation are less common
Moisture content (10.06%)
Bulk density (1240 kg m−3)
Coarse fragment (46%)
Area (12.74–51.80 ha)
Exclosures alone Closed from humans and livestock interference
No enrichment planting
No physical SWC measures
High organic carbon (2.8%)
Moisture content (8.7%)
Bulk density (1220 kg m−3)
Coarse fragment (51%)
Sheet, rill, and gully formation are less common
Area (14.02–34.7 ha)