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Table 4 Nitrogen sources of broad bean plants at the different planting times in open field (OF) and greenhouse (G)

From: Plant–Rhizobium symbiosis, seed nutraceuticals, and waste quality for energy production of Vicia faba L. as affected by crop management

Planting time Root active nodulesa Plant N N fertilizer saving
Fixed by Rhizobium Derived from fertilizers
OF (no. m−2) G (no. m−2) OF (kg ha−1) G (kg ha−1) OF (kg ha−1) G (kg ha−1) OF (Mg ha−1) G (Mg ha−1)
27 September 1260c 1083d 267.0d 235.8e 55.4a 40.6c 2.33d 2.06e
11 October 1410b 1269c 295.5c 267.7d 57.0a 50.2b 2.58c 2.34d
25 October 1566a 1320bc 342.2b 294.7c 35.1d 41.7c 2.99b 2.58c
8 November 1677a 1107d 379.3a 258.3de 30.8d 43.6c 3.32a 2.26de
22 November 555e 609e 152.5f 166.4f 31.5d 31.7d 1.33f 1.46f
  1. Within each variable, values followed by different letters are significantly different according to the Duncan test at p ≤ 0.05
  2. n.s. not statistically significant difference
  3. aRoot active nodules refer to the highest nodule number, recorded during the fruiting phase