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Table 1 Mean pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and CaCO3 equivalence (CCE) in charcoal and firewood ash from five cities in southern Ghana as well as concentration of trace elements; probability values of a two-way ANOVA using ash type and city as factors

From: Characterization of charcoal and firewood ash for use in African peri-urban agriculture

 CharcoalFirewoodSDProbability valuesCV
(± %)
Ash typeCityAsh type × city
pH-H2O13.012.80.30.02NSNS2.0
EC1:5 (dS m−1)4633140.010.04NS29
CCE (%)52457 < 0.010.02NS12
As (µg g−1)1.77.78.00.03NSNS167
Cd (µg g−1)3.14.12.0NSNS0.0355
Cu (µg g−1)4865260.040.04NS47
Mn (µg g−1)645688374NS < 0.01NS56
Hg (ng g−1)1.81.01.7NSNSNS121
Ni (µg g−1)317253167NSNS0.0160
Pb (µg g−1)13101130720NSNS0.0258
Zn (µg g−1)2183571960.01 < 0.01NS68
  1. SD = standard deviation of the whole sample group (n = 40); CV = pooled coefficient of variation between replicate samples (n = 4)
  2. NS  not significant