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Table 2 Definition of the research variables

From: Adoption of pro-environmental behaviors among farmers: application of Value–Belief–Norm theory

Social normsFarmers’ perception of social pressures and expectations to perform pro-environmental behaviors related to healthy crop production
Environmental affectionsNegative or positive feeling towards the environment and empathy with nature, as well as creating emotional relationship with nature and the environment
Moral normsFarmers’ self-expectation of performing pro-environmental activities in a special situation (non-use of chemicals) as a feeling of moral obligation
Environmental responsibility for soil managementAttributing pro-environmental behavior to protect and strengthen soil to him/herself
Awareness of environmental consequencesPeople’s awareness level of adverse effects of their activities (using chemicals in agriculture) on themselves and the others
Perceived behavioral control of clean technologyPeople’s perception of their control level on needed resources of pro-environmental behaviors and avoiding non-environmental behaviors to produce healthy crop
Attitude toward the environmentA complicated and multidimensional concept including negative and positive senses on the environment and a mental state which affects people’s selections related to the environment
Pro-environmental behavior (Adoption)It refers to farmers’ decisions in order to accept and utilize modern and clean technologies in their agricultural lands in accordance with environmental protection
Continue to produce clean technologyIt means that the adopters continue the process of compost production as a clean technology in their future croplands
  1. Refs. [2, 4, 5, 10, 12, 17, 24, 29, 32]