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Table 5 Percentage pupal weight reduction by nanoformulation treatment against third instar larvae of Spodoptera litura by diet incorporation method

From: Assessment of the pesticidal behaviour of diacyl hydrazine-based ready-to-use nanoformulations

Test formulationsConcentration (%)
0.10.050.010.0050.001
Control0a,z0a,z0a,z0a,z0a,z
STD100b,x100b,x100b,w100b,w61.46 ± 6.34a,x
NF4100b,x100b,x70.50 ± 5.16a,y68.84 ± 4.66a,y65.09 ± 3.35a,x
NF6100b,x100b,x69.02 ± 2.94a,y66.98 ± 4.09a,y64.94 ± 3.09a,x
NF7100b,x100b,x100b,w100b,w74.45 ± 4.94a,y
750.46 ± 3.81a,y47.62 ± 5.88a,y44.83 ± 8.02a,x43.85 ± 4.19a,x42.26 ± 6.98a,w
  1. Data are represented as a mean ± SD of each of 15 replicates (n = 15) in percentage. Same letters indicate no significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) between different test formulations (a, b, c) and concentrations (w, x, y, z) used in our study according to Tukey’s HSD and Games Howell’s test. Italics show formulation and concentrations having highest potential as a nanopesticide. NF nanoformulations; 7: non-nanoparent compound 7