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Table 4 Antioxidant activities as DPPH, ABTS, SOD, TEAC and FRAP of A. graveolens infusion, decoction and essential oil (%)

From: Chemical components of essential oils and biological activities of the aqueous extract of Anethum graveolens L. grown under inorganic and organic conditions

Treatments DPPH ABTS SOD TEAC (mM) 10 mg mL−1 TEAC (mM) FRAP (mM) 10 mg mL−1 FRAP (mM)
Infusion EC50 (10 mg mL−1) Decoction EC50 (10 mg mL−1) Essential oil EC50 (mg 10 µl−1) Infusion EC50 (10 mg mL−1) Decoction EC50 (10 mg mL−1) Essential oil EC50 (mg 10 µl−1) Infusion EC50 (10 mg mL−1) Decoction EC50 (10 mg mL−1) Essential oil EC50 (mg 10 µl−1) Infusion Decoction Essential oil Infusion Decoction Essential oil
Control 3.70 ± 0.14e 3.31 ± 0.20f 4.13 ± 0.08d 3.91 ± 0.05e 3.76 ± 0.21e 2.14 ± 0.04f 3.59 ± 0.17de 3.41 ± 0.22d 3.89 ± 0.02c 1.88 ± 0.03b 1.93 ± 0.02c 2.04 ± 0.01a 2.08 ± 0.01a 1.84 ± 0.03c 0.28 ± 0.01ef
30 kg ha−1 AN 4.82 ± 0.18bc 3.79 ± 0.16e 4.61 ± 0.13c 4.75 ± 0.15d 4.28 ± 0.21d 2.34 ± 0.23e 4.34 ± 0.15b 3.84 ± 0.04b 4.50 ± 0.03c 1.83 ± 0.05c 1.85 ± 0.02e 1.86 ± 0.06c 1.73 ± 0.02d 1.51 ± 0.01ef 0.89 ± 0.01d
60 kg ha−1 AN 2.27 ± 0.10f 3.30 ± 0.19f 5.10 ± 0.09b 2.63 ± 0.11g 3.36 ± 0.03f 3.68 ± 0.07c 2.42 ± 0.11f 3.76 ± 0.09bc 3.82 ± 0.06d 2.01 ± 0.03a 1.97 ± 0.04b 1.78 ± 0.01d 1.98 ± 0.01b 2.16 ± 0.02a 0.26 ± 0.00ef
90 kg ha−1 AN 6.30 ± 0.29a 4.58 ± 0.14c 5.86 ± 0.05a 6.36 ± 0.07a 4.61 ± 0.27bc 5.41 ± 0.31a 5.20 ± 0.15a 4.35 ± 0.20a 5.25 ± 0.09a 1.39 ± 0.03f 1.82 ± 0.03e 1.51 ± 0.01f 1.30 ± 0.02ı 1.54 ± 0.03e 0.26 ± 0.01ef
120 kg ha−1 AN 3.75 ± 0.12e 2.39 ± 0.12g 3.79 ± 0.02e 3.61 ± 0.08f 2.72 ± 0.11g 4.24 ± 0.09b 3.62 ± 0.17de 2.49 ± 0.10e 3.90 ± 0.13d 1.73 ± 0.06d 2.06 ± 0.01a 1.70 ± 0.02e 1.69 ± 0.01e 2.16 ± 0.02a 0.25 ± 0.01f
7.5 t ha−1 FYM 3.86 ± 0.15de 4.36 ± 0.04d 2.69 ± 0.05f 3.87 ± 0.13e 4.39 ± 0.20cd 2.93 ± 0.14d 3.48 ± 0.37e 3.80 ± 0.05bc 2.31 ± 0.09e 2.04 ± 0.02a 1.81 ± 0.01e 1.92 ± 0.01b 1.95 ± 0.03c 1.54 ± 0.01e 1.37 ± 0.01c
10 t ha−1 FYM 4.03 ± 0.16d 4.23 ± 0.04d 1.73 ± 0.18g 5.72 ± 0.10b 4.22 ± 0.17d 1.47 ± 0.05g 4.34 ± 0.30b 3.66 ± 0.13c 1.78 ± 0.05f 1.56 ± 0.02e 1.84 ± 0.02e 2.07 ± 0.02a 1.52 ± 0.01g 1.76 ± 0.02d 1.59 ± 0.08b
12.5 t ha−1 FYM 4.63 ± 0.07c 5.36 ± 0.07a 3.94 ± 0.16e 4.97 ± 0.02c 5.20 ± 0.04a 2.29 ± 0.01ef 3.90 ± 0.05c 3.34 ± 0.07d 4.45 ± 0.07c 1.76 ± 0.03d 1.63 ± 0.05f 1.75 ± 0.01d 1.56 ± 0.03f 1.36 ± 0.02g 0.28 ± 0.01e
15 t ha−1 FYM 4.93 ± 0.19b 4.86 ± 0.20b 4.74 ± 0.04c 4.97 ± 0.25c 4.78 ± 0.02b 2.20e ± 0.05f 3.77 ± 0.07cd 4.35 ± 0.04a 4.80 ± 0.07b 1.77 ± 0.05d 1.89 ± 0.04d 1.67 ± 0.01e 1.51 ± 0.00h 1.50 ± 0.01f 0.24 ± 0.01f
Gallic acid 0.02 ± 0.00g 0.02 ± 0.00h 0.02 ± 0.00h 0.029 ± 0.00h 0.029 ± 0.00h 0.029 ± 0.00h 0.028 ± 0.01g 0.028 ± 0.01f 0.028 ± 0.01g 2.051 ± 0.00a 2.051 ± 0.00a 2.051 ± 0.00a 2.078 ± 0.02a 2.078 ± 0.02b 2.078 ± 0.02a
  1. AN Ammonium nitrate, FYM Farmyard Manure, DPPH 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, ABTS 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid, SOD Superoxide radical scavenging activity, TEAC Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, FRAP Ferric reducing antioxidant power
  2. Values were the means of three replicates. Values with different letters in the same column were significantly (p < 0.05) different
  3. EC50 value: The effective concentration at which the antioxidant activity was 50%; DPPH, ABTS and SOD were scavenged by 50%; Expressed as mM ferrous ions eqivalents. Determined at 10 mg ml−1